Its really not as common as knee replacement. Indications are really less.
Shoulder replacement surgery was first done in the 1950s to treat bad shoulder fractures. now its indications have increased to many shoulder problems.
still my first choice of treatment is conservative,that is medication,physical therapy and injections. Shoulder Joint replacement surgery is last option to relieve pain and help you resume everyday activities.
Your shoulder is made up of three bones: your arm bone (humerus), your shoulder blade (scapula), and your collarbone (clavicle). The shoulder is a ball-and- socket joint: The ball, or head, of your upper arm bone fits into a shallow socket in your shoulder blade. This socket is called the glenoid.
Any joint in the body and likewise shoulder is covered by a white covering known as cartilage,which allows smoothy movements of joints without pain. A thin, smooth tissue called synovial membrane covers all remaining surfaces inside the shoulder joint. In a healthy shoulder, this membrane makes a small amount of fluid that lubricates the cartilage and eliminates almost any friction in your shoulder.
there are group of muscles that covers this shoulder joint complex.
The synchronised team work of this muscles allow shoulder to rotate 360 degree.
As in any replacement,Damaged bones are replaced by new metal parts.The treatment options are either replacement of just the head of the humerus bone (ball),which is known as Hemireplacement or replacement of both the ball and the socket (glenoid),A total shoulder replacement.
Several conditions can cause shoulder pain and disability, and lead patients to consider shoulder joint replacement surgery.
Osteoarthritis (Degenerative Joint Disease)
This is an age-related "wear and tear" type of arthritis. Usually seen in elderly people more than 60 yrs. The cartilage that cushions the bones of the shoulder softens and wears away. The bones then rub against one another. Over time, the shoulder joint slowly becomes stiff and painful.
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent the development of osteoarthritis. It is a common reason people have shoulder replacement surgery.
This is actually a blood diseases affecting all the joints.In this the synovial membrane that surrounds the joint becomes inflamed and thickened. This chronic inflammation can damage the cartilage and eventually cause cartilage loss, pain, and stiffness. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common form of a group of disorders termed "inflammatory arthritis."
If shoulder fracture does not heal well at long run it can give arthritis.This secondary osteoarthritis also needs replacement surgery.
Rotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy
Its recommended that rotator cuff tear be treated as early as possible by Arthroscopic repair.But some of the patients do not follow this recommendation by choice or because of circumstances.This are the patients who ends up with Cuff tera Arthropathy requiring Reverse shoulder replacement.
Avascular Necrosis (Osteonecrosis)
Not as common as seen in femoral head but occasionally seen in humeral head.Bone drys up because of loss of blood supply.Its really painful.Patients are advised Replacement.